Composite materials are synthetic materials from two or more different materials that make up new materials that are more efficient than the original materials when these materials work separately. Each composite material consists of one or more intermittent phases distributed in a single continuous phase.

General introduction about Composite
1. History

Simple composite materials have been around for a long time. About 5000 years BC people know how to mix small stones into the soil before making bricks to avoid warping when sunning. And filling the composite form is the compound used to embalm the Egyptians. The natural nature created the composite structure first, which is a woody, composite structure, consisting of many connected long cellulose fibers. together with licnin. The result of this harmonious bond is that the trunk is both durable and flexible - an ideal composite structure. Ancient Greeks also took honey mixed with soil, stone and sand and gravel as construction materials. And in Vietnam, the old days passed on how to make houses with mud mixed with chopped straw to plaster the walls, when dry, create a hard material layer, cool in summer and warm in winter ... Although composite is an object materials have been around for a long time, but the science of composite materials has only been formed in conjunction with the emergence of missile manufacturing technology in the US since the 1950s. Since then, the science of composite materials technology has developed worldwide and sometimes the term "new material" is synonymous with "composite materials".
2. Composition and structure
In general, each composite material consists of one or more intermittent phases distributed in a single continuous phase. (Phase is a component material in the structure of composite materials). The continuous phase is referred to as the matrix material, often in the task of linking the interrupt phases. The interrupt phase is called reinforced or reinforced material (reinforcement) mixed into the base phase to increase mechanical properties, adhesion, wear resistance, scratch resistance ...
3. Composition
Mineral fiber group: glass fiber, carbon fiber, ceramic fiber; thermally stable synthetic fibers: Kermel fibers, Nomex fibers, Kynol fibers, Apyeil fibers. Other less common fiber groups: plant-based fibers (wood, cellulose): paper, jute, hemp, pineapple, coconut, ...; mineral-based fibers: asbestos, silicon fibers, ...; synthetic fibers: polyester yarns (tergal, dacron, terylene, ..), polyamides, ... metal fibers: steel, copper, aluminum, ..
a. Glass fiber
Glass fibers, drawn from the spinning glass (woven glass), have a small diameter of several tens of micrometers. Then these fibers will lose the disadvantages of block glass, such as: brittle, easy to crack, but become more mechanical advantages. The composition of woven glass can contain additional minerals such as silicon, aluminum, magnesium, ... creating different types of fiberglass such as: glass fiber E (good conductivity), glass fiber D
(good insulation), fiberglass A (high alkaline content), glass fiber C (high chemical strength), fiberglass R and glass fiber S (high mechanical strength). Type E glass is a popular type, other less common types (1%) are used in separate applications.
Types of glass fibers
b. Basalt fiber
c. Organic fiber

Common organic fibers: kenvlar fibers are composed of aramite high molecular organic compounds, processed by synthesis at low temperature (-10 ° C), then pulled into fibers in the solution translation, finally treated heat to increase elastic modulus. Kenvlar fiber and all other aramit-like fibers such as Twaron, Technora, ... have lower cost than glass fiber as the lower calculation properties: aramit fibers often have low compression, bending and easy turn cut between layers.
d. Carbon fiber
Carbon fiber is the graphite fiber (graphite), has a surface crystal structure, forming layers linked together, but separated by about 3.35 A °. Carbon atoms are joined together, in a plane, into a hexagonal lattice, with a distance of 1.42 A ° between the atoms in each layer. Carbon fiber has a relatively high mechanical properties, which is roughly equivalent to glass fiber, and has excellent heat resistance.
e. Bor fiber: Bor or Bore yarn (chemical symbol B), is a ceramic fiber obtained by precipitation method. Commercial products of this type of fiber can be in the form of: long fiber strings consisting of many parallel filaments, impregnated bandages used to wrap pipes and fabrics in the same way.
f. Silicon Carbide: Silicon Carbide (SiC) is also a ceramic fiber obtained by precipitation.
g. Metallic yarn
hour. Short fibers and scattered particles
i. Reinforcement: Fabric is a combination of surface (sheet), of fiber reinforced material, made by weaving technology. Traditional traditional weaving techniques are: plain silk weave, satin weave, twill weave, high modular fabric, copper weave
direction. Weaving is a way of knitting, also known as cross-yarn. High-end weaving techniques also have multilateral textile types such as: braided, plaited, and weave volumes that make up multilateral fabrics.
4. Background material
a. Thermosetting polymer substrate materials: Polyesters and concentrates such as phenol resins, furan resins, amino resins, epoxy resins.
b. Thermoplastic polymer substrate material: Background of thermoplastic materials such as: PVC, polyethylene plastic, polypropylene plastic, polyamide resin, ...
c. Carbon substrate material

d. Metal substrate material: Metal base composite materials with very high elastic modulus can be up to 110 GPa. Therefore requires quality